Pharma Website Designing

Pharma  Website Designing

A steam turbine with the case opened. Such turbines produce most of the electricity that people use. Electricity consumption and living standards are highly correlated.[1] Electrification is believed to be the most important engineering achievement of the 20th century. Technology (“science of craft”, from Greek τέχνη, techne, “art, skill, cunning of hand”; and -λογία, -logia[2]) is the collection of techniques, skills, methods and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, and the like, or it can be embedded in machines which can be operated without detailed knowledge of their workings. The simplest form of technology is the development and use of basic tools. The prehistoric discovery of how to control fire and the later Neolithic Revolution increased the available sources of food and the invention of the wheel helped humans to travel in and control their environment. Developments in historic times, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale. The steady progress of military technology has brought weapons of ever-increasing destructive power, from clubs to nuclear weapons. Technology has many effects. It has helped develop more advanced economies (including today’s global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of Earth’s environment. Innovations have always influenced the values of a society and raised new questions of the ethics of technology. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, and the challenges of bioethics. Philosophical debates have arisen over the use of technology, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it.

Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and similar reactionary movements criticise the pervasiveness of technology, arguing that it harms the environment and alienates people; proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and techno-progressivism view continued technological progress as beneficial to society and the human condition. The spread of paper and printing to the West, as in this printing press, helped scientists and politicians communicate their ideas easily, leading to the Age of Enlightenment; an example of technology as cultural force. The use of the term “technology” has changed significantly over the last 200 years. Before the 20th century, the term was uncommon in English, and usually referred to the description or study of the useful arts.[3] The term was often connected to technical education, as in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (chartered in 1861).[4] The term “technology” rose to prominence in the 20th century in connection with the Second Industrial Revolution. The term’s meanings changed in the early 20th century when American social scientists, beginning with Thorstein Veblen, translated ideas from the German concept of Technik into “technology.” In German and other European languages, a distinction exists between technik and technologie that is absent in English, which usually translates both terms as “technology.” By the 1930s, “technology” referred not only to the study of the industrial arts but to the industrial arts themselves.[5] In 1937, the American sociologist Read Bain wrote that “technology includes all tools, machines, utensils, weapons, instruments, housing, clothing, communicating and transporting devices and the skills by which we produce and use them.”[6] Bain’s definition remains common among scholars today, especially social scientists. Scientists and engineers usually prefer to define technology as applied science, rather than as the things that people make and use.[7] More recently, scholars have borrowed from European philosophers of “technique” to extend the meaning of technology to various forms of instrumental reason, as in Foucault’s work on technologies of the self (techniques de soi). Dictionaries and scholars have offered a variety of definitions.

Pharma  Website 

The Merriam-Webster Learner’s Dictionary offers a definition of the term: “the use of science in industry, engineering, etc., to invent useful things or to solve problems” and “a machine, piece of equipment, method, etc., that is created by technology.”[8] Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 “Real World of Technology” lecture, gave another definition of the concept; it is “practice, the way we do things around here.”[9] The term is often used to imply a specific field of technology, or to refer to high technology or just consumer electronics, rather than technology as a whole.[10] Bernard Stiegler, in Technics and Time, 1, defines technology in two ways: as “the pursuit of life by means other than life,” and as “organized inorganic matter.”[11] Technology can be most broadly defined as the entities, both material and immaterial, created by the application of mental and physical effort in order to achieve some value. In this usage, technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems. It is a far-reaching term that may include simple tools, such as a crowbar or wooden spoon, or more complex machines, such as a space station or particle accelerator.

Tools and machines need not be material; virtual technology, such as computer software and business methods, fall under this definition of technology.[12] W. Brian Arthur defines technology in a similarly broad way as “a means to fulfill a human purpose.”[13] The word “technology” can also be used to refer to a collection of techniques. In this context, it is the current state of humanity’s knowledge of how to combine resources to produce desired products, to solve problems, fulfill needs, or satisfy wants; it includes technical methods, skills, processes, techniques, tools and raw materials. When combined with another term, such as “medical technology” or “space technology,” it refers to the state of the respective field’s knowledge and tools. “State-of-the-art technology” refers to the high technology available to humanity in any field. The invention of integrated circuits and the microprocessor (here, an Intel 4004 chip from 1971) led to the modern computer revolution.

Technology can be viewed as an activity that forms or changes culture.[14] Additionally, technology is the application of math, science, and the arts for the benefit of life as it is known. A modern example is the rise of communication technology, which has lessened barriers to human interaction and as a result has helped spawn new subcultures; the rise of cyberculture has at its basis the development of the Internet and the computer.[15] Not all technology enhances culture in a creative way; technology can also help facilitate political oppression and war via tools such as guns. As a cultural activity, technology predates both science and engineering, each of which formalize some aspects of technological endeavor. Antoine Lavoisier conducting an experiment with combustion generated by amplified sun light The distinction between science, engineering, and technology is not always clear. Science is systematic knowledge of the physical or material world gained through observation and experimentation.[16] Technologies are not usually exclusively products of science, because they have to satisfy requirements such as utility, usability, and safety. Engineering is the goal-oriented process of designing and making tools and systems to exploit natural phenomena for practical human means, often (but not always) using results and techniques from science. The development of technology may draw upon many fields of knowledge, including scientific, engineering, mathematical, linguistic, and historical knowledge, to achieve some practical result. Technology is often a consequence of science and engineering, although technology as a human activity precedes the two fields. For example, science might study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors by using already-existing tools and knowledge. This new-found knowledge may then be used by engineers to create new tools and machines such as semiconductors, computers, and other forms of advanced technology. In this sense, scientists and engineers may both be considered technologists; the three fields are often considered as one for the purposes of research and reference.[17]

The exact relations between science and technology in particular have been debated by scientists, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part because the debate can inform the funding of basic and applied science. In the immediate wake of World War II, for example, it was widely considered in the United States that technology was simply “applied science” and that to fund basic science was to reap technological results in due time. An articulation of this philosophy could be found explicitly in Vannevar Bush’s treatise on postwar science policy, Science – The Endless Frontier: “New products, new industries, and more jobs require continuous additions to knowledge of the laws of nature … This essential new knowledge can be obtained only through basic scientific research.”[18] In the late-1960s, however, this view came under direct attack, leading towards initiatives to fund science for specific tasks (initiatives resisted by the scientific community). The issue remains contentious, though most analysts resist the model that technology simply is a result of scientific research.[19][20] Main articles: History of technology, Timeline of historic inventions, and Timeline of electrical and electronic engineering A primitive chopper Further information: Outline of prehistoric technology The use of tools by early humans was partly a process of discovery and of evolution. Early humans evolved from a species of foraging hominids which were already bipedal,[21] with a brain mass approximately one third of modern humans.[22] Tool use remained relatively unchanged for most of early human history.

Approximately 50,000 years ago, the use of tools and complex set of behaviors emerged, believed by many archaeologists to be connected to the emergence of fully modern language.[23] Hand axes from the Acheulian period A Clovis point, made via pressure flaking Hominids started using primitive stone tools millions of years ago. The earliest stone tools were little more than a fractured rock, but approximately 75,000 years ago,[24] pressure flaking provided a way to make much finer work. Main article: Control of fire by early humans The discovery and utilization of fire, a simple energy source with many profound uses, was a turning point in the technological evolution of humankind.[25] The exact date of its discovery is not known; evidence of burnt animal bones at the Cradle of Humankind suggests that the domestication of fire occurred before 1 Ma;[26] scholarly consensus indicates that Homo erectus had controlled fire by between 500 and 400 ka.[27][28] Fire, fueled with wood and charcoal, allowed early humans to cook their food to increase its digestibility, improving its nutrient value and broadening the number of foods that could be eaten.[29] Other technological advances made during the Paleolithic era were clothing and shelter; the adoption of both technologies cannot be dated exactly, but they were a key to humanity’s progress. As the Paleolithic era progressed, dwellings became more sophisticated and more elaborate; as early as 380 ka, humans were constructing temporary wood huts.[30][31] Clothing, adapted from the fur and hides of hunted animals, helped humanity expand into colder regions; humans began to migrate out of Africa by 200 ka and into other continents such as Eurasia.[32] An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools Human’s technological ascent began in earnest in what is known as the Neolithic Period (“New Stone Age”). The invention of polished stone axes was a major advance that allowed forest clearance on a large scale to create farms. This use of polished stone axes increased greatly in the Neolithic, but were originally used in the preceding Mesolithic in some areas such as Ireland.[33]

Agriculture fed larger populations, and the transition to sedentism allowed simultaneously raising more children, as infants no longer needed to be carried, as nomadic ones must. Additionally, children could contribute labor to the raising of crops more readily than they could to the hunter-gatherer economy.[34][35] With this increase in population and availability of labor came an increase in labor specialization.[36] What triggered the progression from early Neolithic villages to the first cities, such as Uruk, and the first civilizations, such as Sumer, is not specifically known; however, the emergence of increasingly hierarchical social structures and specialized labor, of trade and war amongst adjacent cultures, and the need for collective action to overcome environmental challenges such as irrigation, are all thought to have played a role.[37] Continuing improvements led to the furnace and bellows and provided the ability to smelt and forge native metals (naturally occurring in relatively pure form).[38] Gold, copper, silver, and lead, were such early metals. The advantages of copper tools over stone, bone, and wooden tools were quickly apparent to early humans, and native copper was probably used from near the beginning of Neolithic times (about 10 ka).[39] Native copper does not naturally occur in large amounts, but copper ores are quite common and some of them produce metal easily when burned in wood or charcoal fires. Eventually, the working of metals led to the discovery of alloys such as bronze and brass (about 4000 BCE). The first uses of iron alloys such as steel dates to around 1800 BCE.[40][41] The wheel was invented circa 4000 BCE. Main article: History of transport Meanwhile, humans were learning to harness other forms of energy. The earliest known use of wind power is the sailboat; the earliest record of a ship under sail is that of a Nile boat that dates back to the 8th millennium BCE.[42] From prehistoric times, Egyptians probably used the power of the annual flooding of the Nile to irrigate their lands, gradually learning to regulate much of it through purposely built irrigation channels and “catch” basins. Similarly, the early peoples of Mesopotamia, the Sumerians, learned to use the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers for much the same purposes.

However, more extensive use of wind and water (and even human) power required another invention. According to archaeologists, the wheel was invented around 4000 BCE probably independently and nearly simultaneously in Mesopotamia (in present-day Iraq), the Northern Caucasus (Maykop culture) and Central Europe.[43] Estimates on when this may have occurred range from 5500 to 3000 BCE with most experts putting it closer to 4000 BCE.[44] The oldest artifacts with drawings that depict wheeled carts date from about 3500 BCE;[45] however, the wheel may have been in use for millennia before these drawings were made. There is also evidence from the same period for the use of the potter’s wheel. More recently, the oldest-known wooden wheel in the world was found in the Ljubljana marshes of Slovenia.[46] The invention of the wheel revolutionized trade and war. It did not take long to discover that wheeled wagons could be used to carry heavy loads. Fast (rotary) potters’ wheels enabled early mass production of pottery, but it was the use of the wheel as a transformer of energy (through water wheels, windmills, and even treadmills) that revolutionized the application of nonhuman power sources. Main articles: Medieval technology, Renaissance technology, Industrial Revolution, Second Industrial Revolution, Information Technology, and Productivity improving technologies (economic history) Innovations continued through the Middle Ages with innovations such as silk, the horse collar and horseshoes in the first few hundred years after the fall of the Roman Empire. Medieval technology saw the use of simple machines (such as the lever, the screw, and the pulley) being combined to form more complicated tools, such as the wheelbarrow, windmills and clocks. The Renaissance brought forth many of these innovations, including the printing press (which facilitated the greater communication of knowledge), and technology became increasingly associated with science, beginning a cycle of mutual advancement. The advancements in technology in this era allowed a more steady supply of food, followed by the wider availability of consumer goods. The automobile revolutionized personal transportation. Starting in the United Kingdom in the 18th century, the Industrial Revolution was a period of great technological discovery, particularly in the areas of agriculture, manufacturing, mining, metallurgy, and transport, driven by the discovery of steam power. Technology took another step in a second industrial revolution with the harnessing of electricity to create such innovations as the electric motor, light bulb, and countless others. Scientific advancement and the discovery of new concepts later allowed for powered flight and advancements in medicine, chemistry, physics, and engineering.

The rise in technology has led to skyscrapers and broad urban areas whose inhabitants rely on motors to transport them and their food supply. Communication was also greatly improved with the invention of the telegraph, telephone, radio and television. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a revolution in transportation with the invention of the airplane and automobile. F-15 and F-16 flying over Kuwaiti oil fires during the Gulf War in 1991. The 20th century brought a host of innovations. In physics, the discovery of nuclear fission has led to both nuclear weapons and nuclear power. Computers were also invented and later miniaturized utilizing transistors and integrated circuits. Information technology subsequently led to the creation of the Internet, which ushered in the current Information Age. Humans have also been able to explore space with satellites (later used for telecommunication) and in manned missions going all the way to the moon. In medicine, this era brought innovations such as open-heart surgery and later stem cell therapy along with new medications and treatments. Complex manufacturing and construction techniques and organizations are needed to make and maintain these new technologies, and entire industries have arisen to support and develop succeeding generations of increasingly more complex tools. Modern technology increasingly relies on training and education – their designers, builders, maintainers, and users often require sophisticated general and specific training.

Moreover, these technologies have become so complex that entire fields have been created to support them, including engineering, medicine, and computer science, and other fields have been made more complex, such as construction, transportation and architecture. Generally, technicism is the belief in the utility of technology for improving human societies.[47] Taken to an extreme, technicism “reflects a fundamental attitude which seeks to control reality, to resolve all problems with the use of scientific-technological methods and tools.”[48] In other words, human beings will someday be able to master all problems and possibly even control the future using technology. Some, such as Stephen V. Monsma,[49] connect these ideas to the abdication of religion as a higher moral authority. See also: Extropianism Optimistic assumptions are made by proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and singularitarianism, which view technological development as generally having beneficial effects for the society and the human condition. In these ideologies, technological development is morally good. Transhumanists generally believe that the point of technology is to overcome barriers, and that what we commonly refer to as the human condition is just another barrier to be surpassed. Singularitarians believe in some sort of “accelerating change”; that the rate of technological progress accelerates as we obtain more technology, and that this will culminate in a “Singularity” after artificial general intelligence is invented in which progress is nearly infinite; hence the term. Estimates for the date of this Singularity vary,[50] but prominent futurist Ray Kurzweil estimates the Singularity will occur in 2045. Kurzweil is also known for his history of the universe in six epochs: (1) the physical/chemical epoch, (2) the life epoch, (3) the human/brain epoch, (4) the technology epoch, (5) the artificial intelligence epoch, and (6) the universal colonization epoch. Going from one epoch to the next is a Singularity in its own right, and a period of speeding up precedes it. Each epoch takes a shorter time, which means the whole history of the universe is one giant Singularity event.[51] Some critics see these ideologies as examples of scientism and techno-utopianism and fear the notion of human enhancement and technological singularity which they support. Some have described Karl Marx as a techno-optimist.[52] See also: Luddite, Neo-Luddism, Anarcho-primitivism, and Bioconservatism Luddites smashing a power loom in 1812 On the somewhat skeptical side are certain philosophers like Herbert Marcuse and John Zerzan, who believe that technological societies are inherently flawed. They suggest that the inevitable result of such a society is to become evermore technological at the cost of freedom and psychological health. Many, such as the Luddites and prominent philosopher Martin Heidegger, hold serious, although not entirely, deterministic reservations about technology (see “The Question Concerning Technology”[53]).

According to Heidegger scholars Hubert Dreyfus and Charles Spinosa, “Heidegger does not oppose technology. He hopes to reveal the essence of technology in a way that ‘in no way confines us to a stultified compulsion to push on blindly with technology or, what comes to the same thing, to rebel helplessly against it.’ Indeed, he promises that ‘when we once open ourselves expressly to the essence of technology, we find ourselves unexpectedly taken into a freeing claim.'[54] What this entails is a more complex relationship to technology than either techno-optimists or techno-pessimists tend to allow.”[55] Some of the most poignant criticisms of technology are found in what are now considered to be dystopian literary classics such as Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World, Anthony Burgess’s A Clockwork Orange, and George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four. In Goethe’s Faust, Faust selling his soul to the devil in return for power over the physical world is also often interpreted as a metaphor for the adoption of industrial technology. More recently, modern works of science fiction such as those by Philip K. Dick and William Gibson and films such as Blade Runner and Ghost in the Shell project highly ambivalent or cautionary attitudes toward technology’s impact on human society and identity. The late cultural critic Neil Postman distinguished tool-using societies from technological societies and from what he called “technopolies,” societies that are dominated by the ideology of technological and scientific progress to the exclusion or harm of other cultural practices, values and world-views.[56] Darin Barney has written about technology’s impact on practices of citizenship and democratic culture, suggesting that technology can be construed as (1) an object of political debate, (2) a means or medium of discussion, and (3) a setting for democratic deliberation and citizenship.

As a setting for democratic culture, Barney suggests that technology tends to make ethical questions, including the question of what a good life consists in, nearly impossible, because they already give an answer to the question: a good life is one that includes the use of more and more technology.[57] Nikolas Kompridis has also written about the dangers of new technology, such as genetic engineering, nanotechnology, synthetic biology, and robotics. He warns that these technologies introduce unprecedented new challenges to human beings, including the possibility of the permanent alteration of our biological nature. These concerns are shared by other philosophers, scientists and public intellectuals who have written about similar issues (e.g. Francis Fukuyama, Jürgen Habermas, William Joy, and Michael Sandel).[58] Another prominent critic of technology is Hubert Dreyfus, who has published books such as On the Internet and What Computers Still Can’t Do. A more infamous anti-technological treatise is Industrial Society and Its Future, written by the Unabomber Ted Kaczynski and printed in several major newspapers (and later books) as part of an effort to end his bombing campaign of the techno-industrial infrastructure. See also: Technocriticism and Technorealism The notion of appropriate technology was developed in the 20th century by thinkers such as E. F. Schumacher and Jacques Ellul to describe situations where it was not desirable to use very new technologies or those that required access to some centralized infrastructure or parts or skills imported from elsewhere. The ecovillage movement emerged in part due to this concern. This section mainly focuses on American concerns even if it can reasonably be generalized to other Western countries. The inadequate quantity and quality of American jobs is one of the most fundamental economic challenges we face. […] What’s the linkage between technology and this fundamental problem? — Bernstein, Jared, “It’s Not a Skills Gap That’s Holding Wages Down: It’s the Weak Economy, Among Other Things,” in The American Prospect, October 2014 In his article, Jared Bernstein, a Senior Fellow at the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities,[59] questions the widespread idea that automation, and more broadly, technological advances, have mainly contributed to this growing labor market problem. His thesis appears to be a third way between optimism and skepticism. Essentially, he stands for a neutral approach of the linkage between technology and American issues concerning unemployment and declining wages. He uses two main arguments to defend his point.

First, because of recent technological advances, an increasing number of workers are losing their jobs. Yet, scientific evidence fails to clearly demonstrate that technology has displaced so many workers that it has created more problems than it has solved. Indeed, automation threatens repetitive jobs but higher-end jobs are still necessary because they complement technology and manual jobs that “requires flexibility judgment and common sense”[60] remain hard to replace with machines. Second, studies have not shown clear links between recent technology advances and the wage trends of the last decades. Therefore, according to Bernstein, instead of focusing on technology and its hypothetical influences on current American increasing unemployment and declining wages, one needs to worry more about “bad policy that fails to offset the imbalances in demand, trade, income and opportunity.”[60] Thomas P. Hughes stated that because technology has been considered as a key way to solve problems, we need to be aware of its complex and varied characters to use it more efficiently.[61] What is the difference between a wheel or a compass and cooking machines such as an oven or a gas stove? Can we consider all of them, only a part of them, or none of them as technologies? Technology is often considered too narrowly; according to Hughes, “Technology is a creative process involving human ingenuity.[62] This definition’s emphasis on creativity avoids unbounded definitions that may mistakenly include cooking “technologies,” but it also highlights the prominent role of humans and therefore their responsibilities for the use of complex technological systems. Yet, because technology is everywhere and has dramatically changed landscapes and societies, Hughes argues that engineers, scientists, and managers have often believed that they can use technology to shape the world as they want. They have often supposed that technology is easily controllable and this assumption has to be thoroughly questioned.[61] For instance, Evgeny Morozov particularly challenges two concepts: “Internet-centrism” and “solutionism.”[63] Internet-centrism refers to the idea that our society is convinced that the Internet is one of the most stable and coherent forces. Solutionism is the ideology that every social issue can be solved thanks to technology and especially thanks to the internet. In fact, technology intrinsically contains uncertainties and limitations. According to Alexis Madrigal’s review of Morozov’s theory, to ignore it will lead to “unexpected consequences that could eventually cause more damage than the problems they seek to address.”[64] Benjamin R. Cohen and Gwen Ottinger also discussed the multivalent effects of technology.[65] Therefore, recognition of the limitations of technology, and more broadly, scientific knowledge, is needed – especially in cases dealing with environmental justice and health issues.

Ottinger continues this reasoning and argues that the ongoing recognition of the limitations of scientific knowledge goes hand in hand with scientists and engineers’ new comprehension of their role. Such an approach of technology and science “[require] technical professionals to conceive of their roles in the process differently. [They have to consider themselves as] collaborators in research and problem solving rather than simply providers of information and technical solutions.”[66] Technology is properly defined as any application of science to accomplish a function. The science can be leading edge or well established and the function can have high visibility or be significantly more mundane, but it is all technology, and its exploitation is the foundation of all competitive advantage. Technology-based planning is what was used to build the US industrial giants before WWII (e.g., Dow, DuPont, GM) and it is what was used to transform the US into a superpower. It was not economic-based planning. See also: Tool use by animals, Structures built by animals, and Ecosystem engineer This adult gorilla uses a branch as a walking stick to gauge the water’s depth, an example of technology usage by non-human primates. The use of basic technology is also a feature of other animal species apart from humans. These include primates such as chimpanzees,[67] some dolphin communities,[68] and crows.[69][70] Considering a more generic perspective of technology as ethology of active environmental conditioning and control, we can also refer to animal examples such as beavers and their dams, or bees and their honeycombs. The ability to make and use tools was once considered a defining characteristic of the genus Homo.[71] However, the discovery of tool construction among chimpanzees and related primates has discarded the notion of the use of technology as unique to humans.

For example, researchers have observed wild chimpanzees utilising tools for foraging: some of the tools used include leaf sponges, termite fishing probes, pestles and levers.[72] West African chimpanzees also use stone hammers and anvils for cracking nuts,[73] as do capuchin monkeys of Boa Vista, Brazil.[74] Main article: Emerging technologies Theories of technology often attempt to predict the future of technology based on the high technology and science of the time. As with all predictions of the future, however, technology’s is uncertain. Futurist Ray Kurzweil predicts that the future of technology will be mainly consist of an overlapping “GNR Revolution” of Genetics, Nanotechnology, and Robotics, with robotics being the most important of the three.[75] Main article: Outline of technology Theories and concepts in technology Economics of technology Technology journalism Other Find more aboutTechnologyat Wikipedia’s sister projects 

Install WordPress and Off You Go

Finally you can install WordPress on to your page and then you can build your website using this platform.

It is reported that 27.9% of all websites on the internet were built using WordPress.

WordPress is probably the easiest platform available today for a complete beginner to build your own website from scratch, and it is totally FREE!

But don’t let the fact that it’s free fool you into thinking it’s not very good…

Because you would be very wrong, WordPress is used by everyone from webmasters, bloggers, developers and one man marketers to large businesses.

It is great for building anything from small one page sites to large eye-catching business sites.

And because it has been around for a while now it has built up a very large community of people who have designed all manor of plugins, themes and templates (many of them free) that you can use to make your site stand out from the crowd.

Responsive website designs are adaptive to portable devices such as mobile phones, tablets etc.,along with desktop devices. They provide fluid-like flexible grids and designs which are scalable to fit any screen size and orientation. The launch of frameworks concept has put an end to the necessity to write the code from the scratch. Frameworks offer a simplified way to web designers with built-in functionalities and methods to reuse the code without redoing from the beginning

HTML5 , CSS and JS documents are included in frameworks to create exceptional website design and development responsive applications. Frameworks are classified into front-end and back-end.

Few Popular Frameworks

Semantic UI : Semantic UI can be integrated in other frameworks easily and it allows the use of third-party tools. It is one of the popular front-end frameworks for responsive websites. The extremely feature-rich options of this framework include: sophisticated modules, forms, breadcrumbs, buttons, pop-ups, drop-downs, and sticky bones.

Bootstrap : The latest version of this most popular framework is Bootstrap 3 version. Some of the unmatched features are: it can build websites with less technical knowledge, a structured grid format, seamless navigation integration and create fixed and fluid width layout. A website designed by bootstrap is easily adaptable to mobile devices. An ideal website design and development company chooses Bootstrap to design adaptable resolution and content display mechanisms.

Skeleton : A small responsive website design framework used in rapid web development of web design regardless of their sizes. Skeleton uses 960 grid base for developing websites for all communication portable devices like mobile, tablets etc., Some of the UI elements include: well-organized file structure, forms buttons and tabs.

Foundation 3 : Foundation 3 is an advanced front-end framework built with a powerful CSS pre-processor Saas and allows you to customize with new tools. It is the easiest framework to learn and can be seamlessly used by a new user to create exceptional websites. This framework consists of components and an exclusive set of plug-ins where web designers can choose one.

Montage : It is an HTML framework, it is a great tool for developing modern web applications. The set of elements in Montage can help to build scalable and feature-rich websites. One great advantage of Montage is to have reusable components with HTML templates.

Pure : Pure can be used in any kind of web-based projects. It provides a small set of CSS modules which help developers to create various styles to develop the best responsive website designs.

Siimple : Siimple has a minimal CSS framework to create flat and clean web pages. It is a front-end framework with flexible and concise CSS framework to create user-friendly websites. Being to have minimal lines of code, it can be zipped down to 6KB in overall total size. Web designing newbies can experiment freely with this framework to start their career with.

Cascade : The grid layout offered by Cascade are both semantic and non-semantic with table designs and navigational templates. Many designers find it to be an easy framework because of its universal approach. Cascade can create high-performance webpages for cross-platform browsers.

Gumby : Gumby’s list of remarkable features include: well defined UI kit, switches, toggles and flexible grids to create user-centric websites.

Small triangles, especially when the widest area is at the top, are found in pre-Islamic representations of female figures. That the small triangles found in the wall paintings in ‘Asir are called banat may be a cultural remnant of a long-forgotten past.”[40] “Courtyards and upper pillared porticoes are principal features of the best Nadjdi architecture, in addition to the fine incised plaster wood (jiss) and painted window shutters, which decorate the reception rooms. Good examples of plasterwork can often be seen in the gaping ruins of torn-down buildings- the effect is light, delicate and airy. It is usually around the majlis, around the coffee hearth and along the walls above where guests sat on rugs, against cushions. Doughty wondered if this “parquetting of jis”, this “gypsum fretwork… all adorning and unenclosed” originated from India. However, the Najd fretwork seems very different from that seen in the Eastern Province and Oman, which are linked to Indian traditions, and rather resembles the motifs and patterns found in ancient Mesopotamia. 

CSS Hover Effects Background

Previously, JavaScript laid the foundation of hover effects and Javascript or Jquery isn’t light weight as compare you CSS. However, the latest technology calls in CSS3 into use. It is light weight and allows to create any type of animations that previously Jquery or Javascript do. It also supports widget range of browsers. But much to our disappointment there is few older version of browsers that do not support images hover effects, hence you need to have the ones that are capable of catering it. You can also add the fallback to get support for older version of browsers.

The CSS from CSS Image Hover Effects stands for Cascading Style Sheets; which is a programming sheet language that basically represents a document that has been coded in a markup language. This is not only a very simple technique, but its prim and precise nature are always engrossed programmers effectively.

Types of Hover Effects

Since the main focus of this article is on hover effects; let’s see some of them and how they are useful in CSS image hover effects:

1: SUBTLE HOVER EFFECTS

Subtle are effects that can make the site look more exclusive. A photo can suffice, along with a simple grid. Styles, attires, and colors are of your choice and even the other effects are up to you.

2: CAPTION HOVER EFFECTS

The caption is even simpler and there is no rocket science associated with this image hover effects. The title of the picture as well as the link that it connects to can be shown by the grid figures; all this comprises of the caption.

4: DIRECTION-AWARE HOVER EFFECTS Direction aware utilizes Jquery in addition to CSS. A small overlay slide is inserted over your original image from where you can direct the next step of the link.

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5: ZOOM IN HOVER EFFECTS

Zoom is as easy as ABC. The image clicked upon shall be zoomed in to reveal what’s hiding behind it. Here’s a code to show you what it’s like.

In conclusion, we can say that image hover effects if utilized effectively can provide your website intricate yet simple designs that are not only eye-candy but can help lure users to your site. It’s trended thing and very popular nowadays web design.

Image source: pixabay.com by markusspiske under Creative Commons License

There are various reasons why you may want your own website…

If you are thinking of starting an online business one of the first things you will need to do is get yourself a website in place.

If you have an existing business you may want to have your own piece of the internet for your customers to visit ‘out of hours’.

Maybe you just want your own personal website for a different purpose.

Whatever the reasons for wanting a website, it can be a daunting prospect if you have never tackled anything like this before

You may think you need to hire a company of programmers or web designers to get your website up and running. You could do this, but the cost of doing so can be a little more than you are prepared to spend.

Besides if you go down this route and you do hire one of these companies then what happens when you want to change something on your web page? Even if its just one sentence, changing the colour scheme or changing a picture, it could take time and cost you money.

Wouldn’t it be easier, not to have to worry about these issues and simply change things yourself?

You may be thinking that you don’t know how to write code…

Or you don’t have the necessary IT skills to do that sort of thing…

Or it’s just too much of a complicated thing for you to tackle…

You may even be thinking that you wouldn’t know where to start…

Well you are not alone, a lot of people have these reservations when faced with the same prospect.

The good news is nowadays building your own website is not that difficult, in fact you could have your own website up and running from scratch in just one single afternoon.

You don’t need to know coding…

You don’t need any IT skills…

and it really isn’t as difficult as you may think.

As for where to start…

That’s what I’m about to tell you!

You may be thinking the simple way is to head off to wix or Weebly and put together a free drag and drop website and while this is true if you just want your website as a bit of fun or for non business purposes, If you want to be taken seriously as a business then you will need your own website with your own web address.

All we need to do is point your domain name provider to the place on the internet where your website is being hosted.

This is called ‘Setting your domain name servers’

Despite what you think this process is really very easy and just involves supplying your domain name provider with the location of your websites hosting address.

It is just a simple act of copying the information sent to you in your important email and pasting it to the relevant section on your domain name providers website.

If you did happen to purchase your domain name AND your Hosting from the same company then you don’t even need to do this.

Factors to follow while choosing a framework:

  • Easy to use and understand.
  • Seamless integration with database.
  • Long-term support
  • Browser compatibility
  • Clean and precise code.

Conclusion:

Scale-up the screen resolution and content adjustment of your websites with the help of the best available responsive framework designs. The frameworks which are listed above are perfectly used to design beautiful websites. Choose an ideal web design and development company for your professional websites.

The website design industry has become more prominent during the last decade since every business type has acknowledged the importance of building and maintaining a business website. Due to a tremendous increase in the online traffic lately, businesses are focused more towards their online appearance rather than an outdoor advertisement of their products and services. This is the reason, web industry demands highly trained professionals responsible for creating and operating websites for a flawless customer engagement and maximal revenue generation. However, these dexterous professionals are not at all easy to find as not all of them have adequate experience and unbeaten qualities which are essential for being the very best of a web design company. Let’s check out the attributes of successful designers.

  • Creativity

Creativity is the power of thinking out of the box and creating what amaze others. A successful designer always tries to create unconventional things while following the rule book. Such designers wield infinitive ideas from their past experiences and have a propensity for thinking to build innovative designs. Possessing a variety of ideas is important as different industries have different needs and audience types. The designer who has the inventiveness of concepts and ideas becomes a successful website or graphic designer

“Creativity is piercing the mundane to find the marvelous”. Bill Moyers

  • Technical Skills

Knowledge of different software and technical skills is a crucial attribute of a designer. A successful designer has a deep knowledge of designing tools like Photoshop, Coral Draw, etc. Apart from the knowledge, the tempo of using such tools is also important, which is an upshot of regular practice. A passionate designer invests a huge amount of time on designing tools to have a deep functional knowledge of their usage. If you are a designer then spend as much time as you could on design software to understand each and every function and their manipulation.

  • Visualisation

It is crucial for a designer to visualise the outcomes before he even commences the designing work, or else, he’ll waste his entire time in attaining a result different from the expected. A great designer creates graphic initially in his mind and then engraves it on his computer. Visualising the output in prior requires a lot of experience and a line of thought with a composed mind.

  • Business Sense

A designer who has worked for numerous industries and understands the audience associated can do miracles in his designs as he perceives disparate businesses requirements and their preferences. If you have not designed for any particular industry before, then taking advice from the one who has is no harm and will save you from dawdling. You can also seek help from numerous online forums where professionals discuss and share their experiences and resolutions to technical glitches.

  • Hard Shell

Every designer faces critics in different styles. Sometimes clients don’t agree with the designs and sometimes the bosses or colleagues. A good designer listens to everyone and even proactively asks for feedbacks to understand different perspectives towards his design and do the amendments accordingly to deliver impeccable work. If the designer does not agree with suggestions, he should explain his reasons behind the design to convince the back-seat drivers. But a great designer is someone who remains calm and understands everyone’s point without getting displeased even if he has to make infinite changes to the design. That is the reason one of the attributes of a successful designer is that he should have a hard shell.

  • Logical Thinking

Wine is good with everything except water. Likewise, using the fonts, colours, themes, background and other designing elements into a design depends on the adjacent components and logical thinking of the designer pertaining to the graphic he is creating for a particular industry type. The designer who thinks logically and keeps in mind the various factors like industry type, audience type, client’s requirements and other pre-told aspects, is considered as a great designer.

  • Communication

Communication is another important attribute of a successful designer. One who keeps in touch with his clients to note down their feedbacks, work accordingly and respond quickly with the revised design, comes under a ‘good designer’ category. Communication is important as it also helps in rapport building as the clients perceive the seriousness of the designer towards his work. This helps in attaining more work and respect from clients.

  • Problem Solving

A good designer has a problem-solving instinct. Designers have acquaintance with multiple problems during their work. Leaving the problem unsolved and move forward is never a good designer’s convention. Alongside, the time taken by a designer to fix any designing problem is directly proportional to his experience. Designers with ample of experience know how to deal with a particular complication they have come across a few times earlier and take less time to resolve it. On the contrary, designers with less experience and practical knowledge take more time to solve any designing snag.

  • Researching

A successful designer always gets indulged in excessive research during the work and otherwise. Knowing the market trend, software updates, tools utilisation, etc. include a lot of research and development. A designer who keeps researching for updates in the industry is known to be a successful designer. If you are about to commence a design for an industry who have no idea about, spend a good amount of time on research before you soak your brush and start painting the canvas.

  • Confidence

Last but not the least, confidence is a very important attribute of a successful designerAfter creating a design, a designer might face numerous objections and challenges from onlookers. A successful designer knows the reason behind every step he concluded to create a design but others might just have speculations about it. A successful designer will always present a logical explanation behind the design he created and can turn his critics into his admirers with his utter confidence. You know why you have done that, so say out loud confidently!

The approach of getting orders on PSD to WordPress conversion may differ from companies to companies. However, there are definite steps that every company follows for successful deliveries.

PSD to WordPress conversion is probably the most sought after practice that is offered by the companies providing web design and development services. It’s true that companies follow their own approach to accomplish the related projects; however, the steps are already defined and every organization sticks to these steps.

Before we deep dive into the steps, here is a short explanation of the conversion process that has become the most common now. Because of the rising number of users wishing to get conversion services the number of service providers has also flooded in to offer the services. As these companies are getting bigger in number, there are some exceptional PSD to WordPress conversion service providers available there in the market to offer the services.

These companies have been following the steps as stated below. Here is a short explanation of these services.

  • The review or the analysis of the projects

As soon as the companies receive the orders, the first and the foremost task is to review the details that are required by the clients. Here the requirement from the clients may vary depending upon the specific need to be fulfilled by the clients. A deep analysis of the projects gives enough ideas to the developers to start the projects on the particular specifications.

  • The development phase

It is the most important of all phases for every company that is offering the PSD to WordPress conversion service. In this phase, the details that have been summarized in the first phase are executed for real and the project is accomplished. For developing the specifications required by the users, every detail is analyzed properly prior to it is created in real.

  • The testing of the projects

Testing matters the most as it is an imperative step to correct the flaws if anyhow exist in the projects. After the project is done successfully, the testing begins. For companies, the phase of testing the projects is the most important as no client is going to accept the flaws. Thus, to make a great impression on the users, the testing is done carefully.

  • Delivering the project

Companies working in the web development arena aim to make the projects’ delivery before the stipulated time frame so that clients could be impressed with the services. Delivering the project well before the time holds prominence for the users also as they get fruitful results well before the expected time frame.

The series of the services that have been listed here are performed in the right sequence by the PSD to WordPress conversion companies. The ultimate goal of all these establishments lies in exceeding the list of their existing clients. Â

All these steps are concluded under expert guidance by the professionals who are versed in the technicalities involved in the task. Different companies have their definite styles of working but all of them have teams that look after only a specific concern. As such the job of the testing team starts only after the project crosses the delivery phase.

In order to be specific enough in their approach, every company tries to customize the requirements as per the demands of the clients. The nature of clients’ business differs from one to another that compels these companies to offer the services as per the need of the business. It also inspires the clients to contact the same company if services are pleasing. Therefore, being specific with their services is always a benefit for the PSD to WordPress conversion companies.

Website designing and development give a proper shape to the website and in order to sustain and enhance the shape, you must undergo web maintenance occasionally. It is not sufficient to get a premium website designed, program it and host it and leave! There must be continued maintenance to keep the site upgraded and free form glitches, performing at top level. However, one must not be mistaken that website maintenance means redesigning of your website. It is something more relevant to ongoing support to change the images, content or update the information.

Additionally, the activities that fall under site maintenance also include correction of broken links, page titles, adding new web pages, wrongly spelled texts, checking whether pages, add-ons, and programs are working perfectly. Without having Website maintenance services, the websites tend to malfunction regularly and thus, affecting its credibility and ranking. For example, transaction-oriented websites such as online shopping, e-commerce stores, ticket booking sites must perform accurately all the time, and this is impossible without any maintenance support.

Now if we take example of human body in respect to website. Just like human body requires you to take it to doctor for regular checkups and keep yourself away from diseases. In the same manner, websites too are used on daily basis and technology keeps changings. This means that they also need to be taken care of and provided with maintenance on day to day basis. However, most of the companies fail to recognize this fact and believe that once they have got the website developed, there is no need to take a second look over it. Just because your website is running fine and getting traffic does not indicates that it will be fine in future as well. And as the saying goes, prevention is better than cure!

Most of the big companies own an in-house web maintenance teams. However, for small to medium businesses, it is not a possible option to afford a team. It might also divert their attention from the core of their business. For these businessmen, it is a good idea to outsource the website maintenance tasks to those services that specialize in such services.

There are plenty of website maintenance services that can do a lot in your interest and provide satisfactory web performance. However, you must evaluate that these companies as little negligence and incompetent maintenance can lead to multiple problems. A regular chain of communication must be opened while one signs up with website maintenance services. It is not merely enough that the team should monitor and maintain and that’s it! The website owner too, must check if the work is being done properly or not.

The various benefits through website maintenance

•A good maintenance service provides monitored uptime. This helps to eliminate the down problems of the website.

•The convenience of getting fresh updates is available in unlimited form and updates can include graphics, maps, new page additions, forums etc.

•They provide with monthly statistics reports that help you know the performance of the website which is crucial to the growth of the business. This, in turn, devises the business plans and strategies.

•Domain renewal process is also done automatically by the maintenance services. Most of the companies do not ask for surplus expenses at the time of renewal. One needs not to worry about losing the web domain.

•Excellent hosting options are also looked after. A web application development company will gain a thousand benefits with good web maintenance services.

•Your uptime of website and dead page redirection is crucial for the customers and visitors and all these aspects will be under your control with the help of these service providers.

•This is enough to understand the worth and need of maintenance for your website. Don’t delay it.

Hopefully you must have understand now what mistakes you need to avoid and to make a best website design is not a big deal now!

In the modern world we live in, pretty much all business is now conducted digitally, and the key succession of most businesses is online brand awareness. Whether you intend to trade goods, or you just want to promote the services your business provides, either way, you need a website that fully functional, interactive, responsive on all devices (of course, this isn’t mandatory but is definitely recommended), and also customer friendly to consolidate all clientele.

There are so many different types of websites to choose from these days, so you might want to do your research before making any sudden decisions, but it’s worth doing as the website not only needs to suit your business requirements but also needs to meet the needs of your visitors/customers.

Open Source technology comes in a range of different solutions but is usually one of the most utilized platforms when it comes to web design. You can have your pick of Joomla, Drupal, Magento, Open Cart, Presta Shop, Sugar CRM and so much more open source technologies, each one with its particular benefits.

DRUPAL WEB DEVELOPMENT SOLUTIONS

Drupal is one of the most popular open source web design platforms that have a built-in Content Management System (CMS). It’s chosen by many businesses thanks to its powerful tools and functional platform. It’s a favorable choice out of the other open source technologies because of its user efficiency, meaning you don’t have to be equipped with technical skills in order to actually design the solution how you want. Other features include high website performance due to its built-in caching and scalability (it can be used on multiple servers). It also features easy integration with 3rd party applications, it’s search engine friendly, it has supreme security functionality, it provides commercial support through training and education, and it allows management of content by the end user (i.e. you).

Primarily used as a back- end system, Drupal supports a range of website types from personal blogs to government informational sites, and it is built on a PHP language which provides the main database through MySQL. Â

As mentioned previously you don’t have to be of a technical background to be able to use Drupal effectively, although if you haven’t got the time to go through the development process, it might be worth enlisting the help of an expert who has experience in Drupal web design solutions. These experts will be able to support you from the start to the end of the project leaving you stress and hassle free.

Okay, so you’ve established your online presence, and your website is up and running, so what happens next?

DIGITAL MARKETING

Another thing to consider once your website is fully functioning is online marketing techniques, commonly known as Digital Marketing. Digital Marketing uses different techniques to build brand awareness through Search Engine Optimisation (SEO), Pay Per Click (PPC), Social Media Marketing (SMM), Content marketing and also Email and Newsletter marketing. Using these methods you can shout about your business and build a bigger customer outreach so that people know that your organization exists.

With regular website maintenance, and online marketing you can truly allow all that design and development work to truly flourish.

The hover effects and especially CSS image hover effects are a fashionable yet fairly easy way of adding a touch of creativity to your website, all the while enabling user friendliness and interactivity. Before technology reached this stage, a cursor was deemed enough to let the user know that a picture could be clicked upon to reveal further facts and figures. But everything has its age, and the age of cursors is over. To attract users, and make the website trendier we now have Image Hover Effects. These transitions hover over an image with some sort of icon on them to let the users know that more information is at hand when you click. The hover effects CSS can, in turn, reveal a magnified version of the image, or perhaps some text that has relevance to what you’re looking for on the site.

Nowadays, We can see a lot of website on the internet have used clean typography and nice effects. This is really a beautiful trend in web designing. It makes the design cleaner and easy to readable. It allows the site visitor to stay more time on the website. To create such hover effects, There are many different ways and techniques can be used to create nice looking effects. You can use CSS, Javascript or Jquery to developed modern effects. But, the best and easy way to create is usually CSS, and especially the additions of CSS3 make them handy. These effects can be applied on Images, buttons, logos and as well as on links.

However, there are certain things that a client needs to work on, for getting clarity of the exact requirements of web designing. This involves creation of a sitemap by the client. A sitemap is like a rough estimate of the pages and links that are to be included in the website. This can be better understood with the reference of a company’s website, which includes different pages like- company’s profile, products and services offered, contact us page etc. The client can create a brief of company’s background including the pictures of company, its products etc. In order to have a better understanding of your preferences and for the website designer to know your taste, creating a list of sites that you like is of utmost importance.

• Professionalism- Another important factor to be considered while choosing a website designer is his professional attitude. He should be able to stand to his commitments and must deliver the project timely. Delay in work is not a good sign!

• Affordability- The cost involved in the process of website designing should be in accordance with the standard and fair prices set for this task. It’s a long term investment, so spend wisely!

We hope the above information helps you in future projects.

If you’re thinking about having a website built, it’s important for you to have a clear idea of the process before you begin. Your website could be a profitable business venture for you, but only if you’ve really done your research ahead of time. Many people begin investing in their new websites before they’ve really thought out each step and end up wasting money on sites that never see fruition. However, with some simple planning and research, you can set yourself on the right track toward developing a successful website. Here are seven tips for web design and promotion to get you started.

1. Survey the Market and Research Your Competitors

Before you get ahead of yourself and begin hiring a web designer, take some time to survey the market and research your competitors. Look at what other types of websites are out there and see if anyone is doing something similar to your plan. Consider how many people are running similar websites, as well as how professional their websites look. This will help you to determine whether or not it’s worth setting up your own site, before you’ve invested too much in it.

To help ensure the success of your website, you should begin finding a niche market that you can target. You may be tempted to attract any and all customers that you can but you’ll actually have greater success targeting a very specific demographic. Think extensively about who your potential audience members are and what they would be most interested in. Then, you can begin to develop your website around these ideas.

2. Brainstorm Design Ideas and Figure Out What You Like

Once you’ve thought a little more about your site’s purpose, you should now think about your ideas for the design. You’ll need to consider the best way to present your message or to feature your products to audience members. Keep in mind that people tend to skim websites looking for something interesting or eye-catching, so make sure that the most important elements of your site are featured prominently.

7. Allow Time and Money for Search Engine Optimisation

Google AdWords is a great way to help you get started but it’s also important to use search engine optimisation, or SEO, to build organic traffic to your site. While AdWords will automatically place you at the top of search engine rankings with an advert you will have to continue doing that for ever. SEO can help you get to the first page of rankings naturally and eventually you will receive lots of traffic for free. This is important to increasing your traffic and building your site’s legitimacy and authority on your subject.

Be sure to budget the time and money for SEO. It’s not cheap and it can take 6-12 months to get your page to the first page of rankings for a number of keywords but it will generate a great amount of free traffic when you get there. It may cost about £300-£600 per month but SEO is truly the best way to start bringing in consistent traffic. Over time, your SEO efforts can help you build a reliable customer base and increase your sales. You’re website will now be a true competitor in your niche market and well on it’s way to success.

In this digital world of the internet, mobiles, laptops, computers and tablets, online presence has become very important. If you want to grow your business, you need to promote it. Using social media platforms to get the attention is just one step towards your goal.

To be honest, we cannot deny the fact that we don’t trust an organization if it doesn’t have a website of its own. What is the first thing that we do when we want to know more about a specific company? We browse about it on the internet. Don’t we?

A website is the mirror image of your company’s status and reputation, it is a place where everything is in one place, sorted and organized.

How to create a website? 
Follow these steps to create your own website.

Domain name 
· The first step is creating your unique domain name.

· A domain name appears like “xyz.com” and you need to visit a registrar to pay for the name you chose.

· They are easy for people to register in their brains.

· Others like Yahoo, Firefox and Bing are also some great options.

· These search engines are absolutely free and therefore the task of promoting your website becomes very easy.

· Other ways to get your site noticed are conventional methods like word of mouth, newspapers, cold calling etc.

Doughty wondered if this “parquetting of jis”, this “gypsum fretwork… all adorning and unenclosed” originated from India. However, the Najd fretwork seems very different from that seen in the Eastern Province and Oman, which are linked to Indian traditions, and rather resembles the motifs and patterns found in ancient Mesopotamia. The rosette, the star, the triangle and the stepped pinnacle pattern of dadoes are all ancient patterns, and can be found all over the Middle East of antiquity. Al-Qassim Province seems to be the home of this art, and there it is normally worked in hard white plaster (though what you see is usually begrimed by the smoke of the coffee hearth). In Riyadh, examples can be seen in unadorned clay.

Best Website Desinging Companies in India are as follows:-

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Contact Details

404, B-70, Nitin Shanti Nagar Building,

Sector-1, Near Mira Road Station, 

Opp. TMT Bus Stop, 

Thane – 401107

NGO Website Designing 


Troika Tech Services


WordPress Development Company in Mumbai


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